Biosensors (Part 1)
Overview of the latest achievements in the field of biosensor technologies and possible areas of their application
Recent Advances in Biosensor Technology for Potential Applications – An Overview.
S. Vigneshvar et al., Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2016.
Translated by Evgenia Ryabtseva.
The use of biosensors has become of great importance in the fields of drug development, biomedicine, food safety standards, defense, security and environmental quality monitoring. The result was the development of precise and powerful analytical tools using a biological element as a biosensor. Glucometers, the principle of operation of which is based on the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using electrodes with immobilized glucose oxidase, initiated the development of biosensors. Recent advances in biological technologies and measuring instruments, implying the use of fluorescent labels for nanomaterials to increase the sensitivity limit of biosensors. The use of aptamers or nucleotides, affodies, peptide panels and polymers with molecular imprints has provided researchers with tools for the development of innovative biosensors based on classical methods. Integrated approaches provide the best opportunities for the development of specific and sensitive biosensors with high regenerative potential. Various biosensors, starting with nanomaterials and polymers and ending with microorganisms, have a wider scope of promising applications. To do this, it is important to integrate multilateral approaches into the development of biosensors potentially suitable for use in various fields. This article provides an overview of various types of biosensors, ranging from electrochemical, fluorescent labels, nanomaterials, silicon oxide or quartz, and ending with microorganisms used for biomedical purposes and in environmental protection, as well as describes the future prospects for the biosensor technology industry.
The term "biosensor" refers to a powerful innovative analytical device with a biological sensing element that has a wide range of possible applications, such as drug development, diagnostics, biomedicine, food safety and the food industry, environmental monitoring, defense and security. The first biosensor invented in 1962 by Clark and Lyons to measure glucose levels in biological samples and used the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using electrodes with immobilized glucose oxidase. Since then, incredible progress has been made both in technology and in the application of biosensors using innovative approaches, including electrochemistry, nanotechnology and bioelectronics. Taking into account the phenomenal achievements in the field of biosensors, the purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with various technical strategies adapted for the development of biosensors, in order to provide basic knowledge and the current situation in the field of biosensor technologies. Particular attention is paid to research tools demonstrating how biosensor performance has evolved from classical electrochemical methods to optical/visual detection, polymers, silicon oxide, glass and nanomaterials used to improve detection threshold, sensitivity and selectivity. An interesting fact is that microorganisms and bioluminescence have generally been used in the development of label-based biosensors, whereas non-label biosensors imply the use of devices based on transistors or capacitors and nanomaterials. Biosensors provide a basis for understanding technological improvements in the field of measuring instruments, including complex devices with high throughput used in quantitative biology, and portable quantitative and semi-quantitative devices for non-professional use. In addition, the article highlights current research trends, future challenges and limitations of this area. This review is divided into subsections describing two main technical strategies, as well as various types of biosensors, including electrochemical and optical/visual, as well as using polymers, silicon oxide, glass and nanomaterials. These devices were developed for specific purposes, and this review provides readers with comprehensive information about biosensor devices and their applications.
Continued: Technical strategies.
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