13 February 2014

Cancer prevention: aspirin and resveratrol in nanoliposomes

Aspirin and resveratrol prevent the development of cancer by killing tetraploid cells

LifeSciencesToday based on Medical Xpress materials:
Aspirin and resveratrol could prevent cancer by killing tetraploid cells, research showsAccording to a study conducted by Professor Guido Kroemer, MD, PhD, from the Institut Gustave Roussy, France, aspirin and resveratrol kill mouse and human tetraploid cells.

By destroying these cells, often present in precancerous formations, aspirin and resveratrol can prevent the development of cancer. The study by French scientists is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Lissa et al., Resveratrol and aspirin eliminate tetraploid cells for anticancer chemoprevention).

Tetraploid cells contain not the usual two, but four copies of each chromosome. Most often, tetraploid cells die immediately after formation. If they do not die immediately, they are usually destroyed by the body's immune system. However, in the early stages of cancer, tetraploid cells can abound. Scientists have found an abnormally large number of tetraploid cells in the initial stages of cancer of the bronchi, esophagus, stomach, breast, colon, cervix and prostate. Suppression of tumor suppressors in mouse precancerous cells leads to tetraploidization.

Knowing that the destruction of tetraploid cells can protect against cancer, scientists, however, have not yet been able to find a substance that kills these cells without damaging healthy cells. Substances that damage DNA do not harm tetraploid cells, and substances that suppress enzymes necessary for cell division destroy tetraploid cells, but prevent the division of normal cells.

Professor Kremer and his colleagues set out to find out whether tetraploid cells kill (without damaging normal, diploid) aspirin and resveratrol, whose important role in cancer prevention is already known. They gave either aspirin or resveratrol contained in red wine to genetically modified mice with a predisposition to bowel cancer. There were more tetraploid cells in the intestinal mucosa of these genetically modified mice than in normal animals. In mice predisposed to cancer and treated with either resveratrol or aspirin, the number of tetraploid cells decreased and the likelihood of developing cancer decreased.

When cloned mouse tetraploid Lewis lung cancer cells, mouse embryo fibroblasts and human colorectal carcinoma cells were treated with resveratrol, tetraploid cells died, and diploid cells of the same type survived. Other cytotoxic substances, such as cisplatin, quercetin and paraquat, destroyed diploid parent tumor cells more effectively than their tetraploid clones.

Both resveratrol and aspirin activate AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase)– an enzyme associated with cellular homeostasis. Professor Kremer and his colleagues believe that they cause AMPK overexpression, leading to the selective destruction of tetraploid cells. The same level of AMPK activation was observed in both diploid and tetraploid cells treated with resveratrol or aspirin, but only tetraploid cells died. The researchers believe that, compared to diploid cells, tetraploid cells have a lower tolerance threshold for AMPK expression.

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