Подписаться на новости
  • Сенатор
  • ООО "Ай Вао"
  • AI_Conference
  • Vitacoin

Литература к статье «Митохондриальная свободно-радикальная теория старения – на каком этапе мы находимся?»

«Митохондриальная свободно-радикальная теория старения – на каком этапе мы находимся?»
The mitochondrial free radical theory of ageing – Where do we stand?
(Frontiers in Bioscience 13, 6554-6579, May 1, 2008)

1. Gerschman, R., D. L. Gilbert, S. W. Nye, P. Dwyer & W. O. Fenn: Oxygen poisoning and x-irradiation: a mechanism in common. Science, 119, 623-6 (1954)
2. Harman, D.: Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol, 11, 298-300 (1956)
3. Harman, D.: The biologic clock: the mitochondria? J Am Geriatr Soc, 20, 145-147 (1972)
4. Linnane, A. W., S. Marzuki, T. Ozawa & M. Tanaka: Mitochondrial DNA mutations as an important contributor to ageing and degenerative diseases. Lancet, 1, 642-645 (1989)
5. Miquel, J., A. C. Economos, J. Fleming & J. E. Johnson, Jr.: Mitochondrial role in cell aging. Exp Gerontol, 15, 575- 91 (1980)
6. Beckman, K. B. & B. N. Ames: The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol Rev, 78, 547-81 (1998)
7. de Magalhaes, J. P. & G. M. Church: Cells discover fire: employing reactive oxygen species in development and consequences for aging. Exp Gerontol, 41, 1-10 (2006)
8. Harman, D.: Free radical theory of aging: an update: increasing the functional life span. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1067, 10-21 (2006)
9. Muller, F. L., M. S. Lustgarten, Y. Jang, A. Richardson & H. Van Remmen: Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic Biol Med, 43, 477-503 (2007)
10. Sohal, R. S., R. J. Mockett & W. C. Orr: Mechanisms of aging: an appraisal of the oxidative stress hypothesis. Free Radic Biol Med, 33, 575-86 (2002)
11. Turrens, J. F.: Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species. J Physiol, 552, 335-44 (2003)
12. Fleming, J. E., J. Miquel, S. F. Cottrell, L. S. Yengoyan & A. C. Economos: Is cell aging caused by respirationdependent injury to the mitochondrial genome? Gerontology, 28, 44-53 (1982)
13. Richter, C., J. W. Park & B. N. Ames: Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA is extensive. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 85, 6465-6467 (1988)
14. Halliwell, B. & O. I. Aruoma: DNA damage by oxygen-derived species. Its mechanism and measurement in mammalian systems. FEBS Lett, 281, 9-19 (1991)
15. Halliwell, B. & J. M. C. Gutteridge: Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford (2007)
16. Klungland, A., I. Rosewell, S. Hollenbach, E. Larsen, G. Daly, B. Epe, E. Seeberg, T. Lindahl & D. E. Barnes: Accumulation of premutagenic DNA lesions in mice defective in removal of oxidative base damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 13300-13305 (1999)
17. Kamiya, H., K. Miura, H. Ishikawa, H. Inoue, S. Nishimura & E. Ohtsuka: c-Ha-ras containing 8- hydroxyguanine at codon 12 induces point mutations at the modified and adjacent positions. Cancer Res, 52, 3483- 3485 (1992)
18. Kouchakdjian, M., V. Bodepudi, S. Shibutani, M. Eisenberg, F. Johnson, A. P. Grollman & D. J. Patel: NMR structural studies of the ionizing radiation adduct 7-hydro- 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-7H-dG) opposite deoxyadenosine in a DNA duplex. 8-Oxo-7H-dG (syn).dA (anti) alignment at lesion site. Biochemistry, 30, 1403-12 (1991)
19. Neeley, W. L. & J. M. Essigmann: Mechanisms of formation, genotoxicity, and mutation of guanine oxidation products. Chem Res Toxicol, 19, 491-505 (2006)
20. Kreutzer, D. A. & J. M. Essigmann: Oxidized, deaminated cytosines are a source of C --> T transitions in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 3578-3582 (1998)
21. Wang, D., D. A. Kreutzer & J. M. Essigmann: Mutagenicity and repair of oxidative DNA damage: insights from studies using defined lesions. Mutat Res, 400, 99-115 (1998)
22. Bandy, B. & A. J. Davison: Mitochondrial mutations may increase oxidative stress: implications for carcinogenesis and aging? Free Radic Biol Med, 8, 523-39 (1990)
23. Lesnefsky, E. J. & C. L. Hoppel: Oxidative phosphorylation and aging. Ageing Res Rev, 5, 402-33 (2006)
24. Kudin, A. P., N. Y. Bimpong-Buta, S. Vielhaber, C. E. Elger & W. S. Kunz: Characterization of superoxideproducing sites in isolated brain mitochondria. J Biol Chem, 279, 4127-4135 (2004)
25. Liu, B. F., H. Hisamoto & S. Terabe: Subsecond separation of cellular flavin coenzymes by microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A, 1021, 201-207 (2003)
26. St-Pierre, J., J. A. Buckingham, S. J. Roebuck & M. D. Brand: Topology of superoxide production from different sites in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. J Biol Chem, 277, 44784-44790 (2002)
27. Nohl, H., L. Gille & K. Staniek: Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol, 69, 719-23 (2005)
28. Muller, F. L., Y. Liu, M. A. Abdul-Ghani, M. S. Lustgarten, A. Bhattacharya, Y. C. Jang & H. Van Remmen: High rates of superoxide production in skeletalmuscle mitochondria respiring on both complex I- and complex II-linked substrates. Biochem J, 409, 491-499 (2008)
29. Zoccarato, F., L. Cavallini, S. Bortolami & A. Alexandre: Succinate modulation of H2O2 release at NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) in brain mitochondria. Biochem J, 406, 125-129 (2007)
30. Kozlov, A. V., L. Szalay, F. Umar, K. Kropik, K. Staniek, H. Niedermuller, S. Bahrami & H. Nohl: Skeletal muscles, heart, and lung are the main sources of oxygen radicals in old rats. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1740, 382-389 (2005)
31. Liochev, S. I. & I. Fridovich: Superoxide and iron: partners in crime. IUBMB Life, 48, 157-161 (1999)
32. Keyer, K. & J. A. Imlay: Superoxide accelerates DNA damage by elevating free-iron levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 13635-13640 (1996)
33. Lenaz, G., M. D'Aurelio, M. Merlo Pich, M. L. Genova, B. Ventura, C. Bovina, G. Formiggini & G. Parenti Castelli: Mitochondrial bioenergetics in aging. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1459, 397-404 (2000)
34. Takeshita, K., K. Fujii, K. Anzai & T. Ozawa: In vivo monitoring of hydroxyl radical generation caused by x-ray irradiation of rats using the spin trapping/EPR technique. Free Radic Biol Med, 36, 1134-1143 (2004)
35. Halliwell, B.: Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now? J Neurochem, 97, 1634-1658 (2006)
36. Popescu, B. F., I. J. Pickering, G. N. George & H. Nichol: The chemical form of mitochondrial iron in Friedreich's ataxia. J Inorg Biochem, 101, 957-966 (2007)
37. LeDoux, S. P., N. J. Patton, L. J. Avery & G. L. Wilson: Repair of N-methylpurines in the mitochondrial DNA of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D cells. Carcinogenesis, 14, 913-917 (1993)
38. Clayton, D. A., J. N. Doda & E. C. Friedberg: The absence of a pyrimidine dimer repair mechanism in mammalian mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 71, 2777-2781 (1974)
39. Taffe, B. G., F. Larminat, J. Laval, D. L. Croteau, R. M. Anson & V. A. Bohr: Gene-specific nuclear and mitochondrial repair of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mutat Res, 364, 183-192 (1996)
40. Driggers, W. J., S. P. LeDoux & G. L. Wilson: Repair of oxidative damage within the mitochondrial DNA of RINr 38 cells. J Biol Chem, 268, 22042-22045 (1993)
41. Croteau, D. L., C. M. ap Rhys, E. K. Hudson, G. L. Dianov, R. G. Hansford & V. A. Bohr: An oxidative damage-specific endonuclease from rat liver mitochondria. J Biol Chem, 272, 27338-27344 (1997)
42. Thorslund, T., M. Sunesen, V. A. Bohr & T. Stevnsner: Repair of 8-oxoG is slower in endogenous nuclear genes than in mitochondrial DNA and is without strand bias. DNA Repair (Amst), 1, 261-273 (2002)
43. Ojala, D. & G. Attardi: Precise localization of the origin of replication in a physical map of HeLa cell mitochondrial DNA and isolation of a small fragment that contains it. J Mol Biol, 122, 301-319 (1978)
44. Wiesner, R. J., G. Zsurka & W. S. Kunz: Mitochondrial DNA damage and the aging process: facts and imaginations. Free Radic Res, 40, 1284-1294 (2006)
45. Ghivizzani, S. C., C. S. Madsen, M. R. Nelen, C. V. Ammini & W. W. Hauswirth: In organello footprint analysis of human mitochondrial DNA: human mitochondrial transcription factor A interactions at the origin of replication. Mol Cell Biol, 14, 7717-7730 (1994)
46. Lim, K. S., K. Jeyaseelan, M. Whiteman, A. Jenner & B. Halliwell: Oxidative damage in mitochondrial DNA is not extensive. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1042, 210-220 (2005)
47. Collins, A. R., J. Cadet, L. Moller, H. E. Poulsen & J. Vina: Are we sure we know how to measure 8-oxo-7,8- dihydroguanine in DNA from human cells? Arch Biochem Biophys, 423, 57-65 (2004)
48. Beckman, K. B. & B. N. Ames: Endogenous oxidative damage of mtDNA. Mutat Res, 424, 51-58 (1999)
49. Inter-laboratory validation of procedures for measuring 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine/8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'- deoxyguanosine in DNA. Free Radic Res, 36, 239-245 (2002)
50. Comparative analysis of baseline 8-oxo-7,8- dihydroguanine in mammalian cell DNA, by different methods in different laboratories: an approach to consensus. Carcinogenesis, 23, 2129-2133 (2002)
51. Beckman, K. B. & B. N. Ames: Detection and quantification of oxidative adducts of mitochondrial DNA. Methods Enzymol, 264, 442-453 (1996)
52. Anson, R. M., E. Hudson & V. A. Bohr: Mitochondrial endogenous oxidative damage has been overestimated. FASEB J, 14, 355-360 (2000)
53. Zastawny, T. H., M. Dabrowska, T. Jaskolski, M. Klimarczyk, L. Kulinski, A. Koszela, M. Szczesniewicz, M. Sliwinska, P. Witkowski & R. Olinski: Comparison of oxidative base damage in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Free Radic Biol Med, 24, 722-725 (1998)
54. Hamilton, M. L., Z. Guo, C. D. Fuller, H. Van Remmen, W. F. Ward, S. N. Austad, D. A. Troyer, I. Thompson & A. Richardson: A reliable assessment of 8- oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA using the sodium iodide method to isolate DNA. Nucleic Acids Res, 29, 2117-2126 (2001)
55. de la Asuncion, J. G., A. Millan, R. Pla, L. Bruseghini, A. Esteras, F. V. Pallardo, J. Sastre & J. Vina: Mitochondrial glutathione oxidation correlates with ageassociated oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA. FASEB J, 10, 333-338 (1996)
56. Anson, R. M., S. Senturker, M. Dizdaroglu & V. A. Bohr: Measurement of oxidatively induced base lesions in liver from Wistar rats of different ages. Free Radic Biol Med, 27, 456-462 (1999)
57. Hayakawa, M., T. Ogawa, S. Sugiyama, M. Tanaka & T. Ozawa: Massive conversion of guanosine to 8-hydroxyguanosine in mouse liver mitochondrial DNA by administration of azidothymidine. BiochemBiophysResCommun, 176, 87-93 (1991)
58. Ames, B. N., M. K. Shigenaga & T. M. Hagen: Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 7915-7922 (1993)
59. Mecocci, P., U. MacGarvey, A. E. Kaufman, D. Koontz, J. M. Shoffner, D. C. Wallace & M. F. Beal: Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA shows marked age-dependent increases in human brain. Ann Neurol, 34, 609-616 (1993)
60. Pallardo, F. V., M. Asensi, d. l. A. Garcia, V. Anton, A. Lloret, J. Sastre & J. Vina: Late onset administration of oral antioxidants prevents age-related loss of motor coordination and brain mitochondrial DNA damage. Free Radic Res, 29, 617-623 (1998)
61. Calleja, M., P. Pena, C. Ugalde, C. Ferreiro, R. Marco & R. Garesse: Mitochondrial DNA remains intact during Drosophila aging, but the levels of mitochondrial transcripts are significantly reduced. J Biol Chem, 268, 18891-18897 (1993)
62. Trapp, C., A. K. McCullough & B. Epe: The basal levels of 8-oxoG and other oxidative modifications in intact mitochondrial DNA are low even in repair-deficient (Ogg1 (-/-)/Csb (-/-)) mice. Mutat Res, 625, 155-163 (2007)
63. Bielas, J. H. & L. A. Loeb: Quantification of random genomic mutations. Nat Methods, 2, 285-290 (2005)
64. Vermulst, M., J. H. Bielas, G. C. Kujoth, W. C. Ladiges, P. S. Rabinovitch, T. A. Prolla & L. A. Loeb: Mitochondrial point mutations do not limit the natural lifespan of mice. Nat Genet, 39, 540-543 (2007)
65. Wang, E., A. Wong & G. Cortopassi: The rate of mitochondrial mutagenesis is faster in mice than humans. Mutat Res, 377, 157-166 (1997)
66. Busuttil, R. A., M. Rubio, M. E. Dolle, J. Campisi & J. Vijg: Oxygen accelerates the accumulation of mutations during the senescence and immortalization of murine cells in culture. Aging Cell, 2, 287-294 (2003)
67. Zheng, W., K. Khrapko, H. A. Coller, W. G. Thilly & W. C. Copeland: Origins of human mitochondrial point mutations as DNA polymerase gamma-mediated errors. Mutat Res, 599, 11-20 (2006)
68. Lu, T., Y. Pan, S. Y. Kao, C. Li, I. Kohane, J. Chan & B. A. Yankner: Gene regulation and DNA damage in the ageing human brain. Nature, 429, 883-891 (2004)
69. Panov, A., S. Dikalov, N. Shalbuyeva, G. Taylor, T. Sherer & J. T. Greenamyre: Rotenone model of Parkinson disease: multiple brain mitochondria dysfunctions after short term systemic rotenone intoxication. J Biol Chem, 280, 42026-42035 (2005)
70. Kujoth, G. C., A. Hiona, T. D. Pugh, S. Someya, K. Panzer, S. E. Wohlgemuth, T. Hofer, A. Y. Seo, R. Sullivan, W. A. Jobling, J. D. Morrow, H. Van Remmen, J. M. Sedivy, T. Yamasoba, M. Tanokura, R. Weindruch, C. Leeuwenburgh & T. A. Prolla: Mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in mammalian aging. Science, 309, 481-484 (2005)
71. Trifunovic, A., A. Wredenberg, M. Falkenberg, J. N. Spelbrink, A. T. Rovio, C. E. Bruder, Y. Bohlooly, S. Gidlof, A. Oldfors, R. Wibom, J. Tornell, H. T. Jacobs & N. G. Larsson: Premature ageing in mice expressing defective mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Nature, 429, 417-423 (2004)
72. Zhang, D., J. L. Mott, S. W. Chang, G. Denniger, Z. Feng & H. P. Zassenhaus: Construction of transgenic mice with tissue-specific acceleration of mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis. Genomics, 69, 151-161 (2000)
73. Levine, R. L.: Carbonyl modified proteins in cellular regulation, aging, and disease. Free Radic Biol Med, 32, 790-796 (2002)
74. Chevion, M., E. Berenshtein & E. R. Stadtman: Human studies related to protein oxidation: protein carbonyl content as a marker of damage. Free Radic Res, 33 Suppl, S99-108 (2000)
75. Mott, J. L., D. Zhang, M. Stevens, S. Chang, G. Denniger & H. P. Zassenhaus: Oxidative stress is not an obligate mediator of disease provoked by mitochondrial DNA mutations. Mutat Res, 474, 35-45 (2001)
76. Zhang, D., J. L. Mott, P. Farrar, J. S. Ryerse, S. W. Chang, M. Stevens, G. Denniger & H. P. Zassenhaus: Mitochondrial DNA mutations activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and cause dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res, 57, 147-157 (2003)
77. Roberts, L. J. & J. D. Morrow: Products of the isoprostane pathway: unique bioactive compounds and markers of lipid peroxidation. Cell Mol Life Sci, 59, 808- 820 (2002)
78. Fam, S. S. & J. D. Morrow: The isoprostanes: unique products of arachidonic acid oxidation-a review. Curr Med Chem, 10, 1723-1740 (2003)
79. Trifunovic, A., A. Hansson, A. Wredenberg, A. T. Rovio, E. Dufour, I. Khvorostov, J. N. Spelbrink, R. Wibom, H. T. Jacobs & N. G. Larsson: Somatic mtDNA mutations cause aging phenotypes without affecting reactive oxygen species production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102, 17993-17998 (2005)
80. Halliwell, B.: Oxidative stress in cell culture: an under-appreciated problem? FEBS Lett, 540, 3-6 (2003)
81. Michikawa, Y., F. Mazzucchelli, N. Bresolin, G. Scarlato & G. Attardi: Aging-dependent large accumulation of point mutations in the human mtDNA control region for replication. Science, 286, 774-779 (1999)
82. Wang, Y., Y. Michikawa, C. Mallidis, Y. Bai, L. Woodhouse, K. E. Yarasheski, C. A. Miller, V. Askanas, W. K. Engel, S. Bhasin & G. Attardi: Musclespecific mutations accumulate with aging in critical human mtDNA control sites for replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 4022-4027 (2001)
83. Chomyn, A. & G. Attardi: MtDNA mutations in aging and apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 304, 519-529 (2003)
84. de Grey, A. D.: Mitochondrial mutations in mammalian aging: an over-hasty about-turn? Rejuvenation Res, 7, 171-174 (2004)
85. Khrapko, K. & J. Vijg: Mitochondrial DNA mutations and aging: a case closed? Nat Genet, 39, 445-446 (2007)
86. Khrapko, K., Y. Kraytsberg, A. D. de Grey, J. Vijg & E. A. Schon: Does premature aging of the mtDNA mutator mouse prove that mtDNA mutations are involved in natural aging? Aging Cell, 5, 279-282 (2006)
87. Soong, N. W., D. R. Hinton, G. Cortopassi & N. Arnheim: Mosaicism for a specific somatic mitochondrial DNA mutation in adult human brain. Nat Genet, 2, 318-323 (1992)
88. Simonetti, S., X. Chen, S. DiMauro & E. A. Schon: Accumulation of deletions in human mitochondrial DNA during normal aging: analysis by quantitative PCR. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1180, 113-122 (1992)
89. Melov, S., G. Z. Hertz, G. D. Stormo & T. E. Johnson: Detection of deletions in the mitochondrial genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 1075-1078 (1994)
90. Gadaleta, M. N., G. Rainaldi, A. M. Lezza, F. Milella, F. Fracasso & P. Cantatore: Mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial DNA deletion in adult and senescent rats. Mutat Res, 275, 181-193 (1992)
91. Edris, W., B. Burgett, O. C. Stine & C. R. Filburn: Detection and quantitation by competitive PCR of an ageassociated increase in a 4.8-kb deletion in rat mitochondrial DNA. Mutat Res, 316, 69-78 (1994)
92. Cortopassi, G. A., D. Shibata, N. W. Soong & N. Arnheim: A pattern of accumulation of a somatic deletion of mitochondrial DNA in aging human tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 7370-7374 (1992)
93. Schapira, A. H. & H. R. Cock: Mitochondrial myopathies and encephalomyopathies. Eur J Clin Invest, 29, 886-898 (1999)
94. Filburn, C. R., W. Edris, M. Tamatani, B. Hogue, I. Kudryashova & R. G. Hansford: Mitochondrial electron transport chain activities and DNA deletions in regions of the rat brain. Mech Ageing Dev, 87, 35-46 (1996)
95. Cortopassi, G. A. & N. Arnheim: Detection of a specific mitochondrial DNA deletion in tissues of older humans. Nucleic Acids Res, 18, 6927-6933 (1990)
96. Hayakawa, M., K. Hattori, S. Sugiyama & T. Ozawa: Age-associated oxygen damage and mutations in mitochondrial DNA in human hearts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 189, 979-985 (1992)
97. Halliwell, B.: Oxygen and nitrogen are procarcinogens. Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen, chlorine and nitrogen species: measurement, mechanism and the effects of nutrition. Mutat Res, 443, 37-52 (1999)
98. Corral-Debrinski, M., T. Horton, M. T. Lott, J. M. Shoffner, M. F. Beal & D. C. Wallace: Mitochondrial DNA deletions in human brain: regional variability and increase with advanced age. Nat Genet, 2, 324-329 (1992)
99. Trounce, I., E. Byrne & S. Marzuki: Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory chain function: possible factor in ageing. Lancet, 1, 637-639 (1989)
100. Hagen, T. M., D. L. Yowe, J. C. Bartholomew, C. M. Wehr, K. L. Do, J. Y. Park & B. N. Ames: Mitochondrial decay in hepatocytes from old rats: membrane potential declines, heterogeneity and oxidants increase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 3064-3069 (1997)
101. Greco, M., G. Villani, F. Mazzucchelli, N. Bresolin, S. Papa & G. Attardi: Marked aging-related decline in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in human skin fibroblasts. FASEB J, 17, 1706-1708 (2003)
102. Bowling, A. C., E. M. Mutisya, L. C. Walker, D. L. Price, L. C. Cork & M. F. Beal: Age-dependent impairment of mitochondrial function in primate brain. J Neurochem, 60, 1964-1967 (1993)
103. Boffoli, D., S. C. Scacco, R. Vergari, G. Solarino, G. Santacroce & S. Papa: Decline with age of the respiratory chain activity in human skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1226, 73-82 (1994)
104. Barazzoni, R., K. R. Short & K. S. Nair: Effects of aging on mitochondrial DNA copy number and cytochrome c oxidase gene expression in rat skeletal muscle, liver, and heart. J Biol Chem, 275, 3343-3347 (2000)
105. Allen, R. G., B. P. Keogh, M. Tresini, G. S. Gerhard, C. Volker, R. J. Pignolo, J. Horton & V. J. Cristofalo: Development and age-associated differences in electron transport potential and consequences for oxidant generation. J Biol Chem, 272, 24805-24812 (1997)
106. Sohal, R. S., I. Svensson, B. H. Sohal & U. T. Brunk: Superoxide anion radical production in different animal species. Mech Ageing Dev, 49, 129-135 (1989)
107. Farmer, K. J. & R. S. Sohal: Relationship between superoxide anion radical generation and aging in the housefly, Musca domestica. Free Radic Biol Med, 7, 23-29 (1989)
108. Barja, G., S. Cadenas, C. Rojas, R. Perez-Campo & M. Lopez-Torres: Low mitochondrial free radical production per unit O2 consumption can explain the simultaneous presence of high longevity and high aerobic metabolic rate in birds. Free Radic Res, 21, 317-327 (1994)
109. Ku, H. H. & R. S. Sohal: Comparison of mitochondrial pro-oxidant generation and anti-oxidant defenses between rat and pigeon: possible basis of variation in longevity and metabolic potential. Mech Ageing Dev, 72, 67-76 (1993)
110. Pamplona, R., G. Barja & M. Portero-Otin: Membrane fatty acid unsaturation, protection against oxidative stress, and maximum life span: a homeoviscous-longevity adaptation? Ann N Y Acad Sci, 959, 475-490 (2002)
111. Sohal, R. S., L. A. Arnold & B. H. Sohal: Age-related changes in antioxidant enzymes and prooxidant generation in tissues of the rat with special reference to parameters in two insect species. Free Radic Biol Med, 9, 495-500 (1990)
112. Sohal, R. S., H. H. Ku & S. Agarwal: Biochemical correlates of longevity in two closely related rodent species. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 196, 7-11 (1993)
113. Brunet-Rossinni, A. K.: Reduced free-radical production and extreme longevity in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) versus two non-flying mammals. Mech Ageing Dev, 125, 11-20 (2004)
114. Herrero, A. & G. Barja: Sites and mechanisms responsible for the low rate of free radical production of heart mitochondria in the long-lived pigeon. Mech Ageing Dev, 98, 95-111 (1997)
115. Herrero, A. & G. Barja: H2O2 production of heart mitochondria and aging rate are slower in canaries and parakeets than in mice: sites of free radical generation and mechanisms involved. Mech Ageing Dev, 103, 133-146 (1998)
116. Speakman, J. R.: Correlations between physiology and lifespan--two widely ignored problems with comparative studies. Aging Cell, 4, 167-175 (2005)
117. Lambert, A. J., H. M. Boysen, J. A. Buckingham, T. Yang, A. Podlutsky, S. N. Austad, T. H. Kunz, R. Buffenstein & M. D. Brand: Low rates of hydrogen peroxide production by isolated heart mitochondria associate with long maximum lifespan in vertebrate homeotherms. Aging Cell, 6, 607-618 (2007)
118. Barja, G. & A. Herrero: Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is inversely related to maximum life span in the heart and brain of mammals. FASEB J, 14, 312-318 (2000)
119. Herrero, A. & G. Barja: 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in heart and brain mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of two mammals and three birds in relation to their different rates of aging. Aging (Milano), 11, 294-300 (1999)
120. Schriner, S. E., N. J. Linford, G. M. Martin, P. Treuting, C. E. Ogburn, M. Emond, P. E. Coskun, W. Ladiges, N. Wolf, H. Van Remmen, D. C. Wallace & P. S. Rabinovitch: Extension of murine life span by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria. Science, 308, 1909-1911 (2005)
121. Van Remmen, H., Y. Ikeno, M. Hamilton, M. Pahlavani, N. Wolf, S. R. Thorpe, N. L. Alderson, J. W. Baynes, C. J. Epstein, T. T. Huang, J. Nelson, R. Strong & A. Richardson: Life-long reduction in MnSOD activity results in increased DNA damage and higher incidence of cancer but does not accelerate aging. Physiol Genomics, 16, 29-37 (2003)
122. Bua, E., S. H. McKiernan & J. M. Aiken: Calorie restriction limits the generation but not the progression of mitochondrial abnormalities in aging skeletal muscle. FASEB J, 18, 582-584 (2004)
123. Gredilla, R., A. Sanz, M. Lopez-Torres & G. Barja: Caloric restriction decreases mitochondrial free radical generation at complex I and lowers oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in the rat heart. FASEB J, 15, 1589- 1591 (2001)
124. Dirks, A. J. & C. Leeuwenburgh: Caloric restriction in humans: potential pitfalls and health concerns. Mech Ageing Dev, 127, 1-7 (2006)
125. Evans, W. J. & D. Cyr-Campbell: Nutrition, exercise, and healthy aging. J Am Diet Assoc, 97, 632-638 (1997)
126. Lexell, J., C. C. Taylor & M. Sjostrom: What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci, 84, 275-294 (1988)
127. Muller-Hocker, J.: Cytochrome c oxidase deficient fibres in the limb muscle and diaphragm of man without muscular disease: an age-related alteration. J Neurol Sci, 100, 14-21 (1990)
128. Muller-Hocker, J., K. Schneiderbanger, F. H. Stefani & B. Kadenbach: Progressive loss of cytochrome c oxidase in the human extraocular muscles in ageing--a cytochemical-immunohistochemical study. Mutat Res, 275, 115-124 (1992)
129. Rifai, Z., S. Welle, C. Kamp & C. A. Thornton: Ragged red fibers in normal aging and inflammatory myopathy. Ann Neurol, 37, 24-29 (1995)
130. Cooper, J. M., V. M. Mann & A. H. Schapira: Analyses of mitochondrial respiratory chain function and mitochondrial DNA deletion in human skeletal muscle: effect of ageing. J Neurol Sci, 113, 91-98 (1992)
131. Johnston, W., G. Karpati, S. Carpenter, D. Arnold & E. A. Shoubridge: Late-onset mitochondrial myopathy. Ann Neurol, 37, 16-23 (1995)
132. Muller-Hocker, J., P. Seibel, K. Schneiderbanger & B. Kadenbach: Different in situ hybridization patterns of mitochondrial DNA in cytochrome c oxidase-deficient extraocular muscle fibres in the elderly. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol, 422, 7-15 (1993)
133. Lee, C. M., M. E. Lopez, R. Weindruch & J. M. Aiken: Association of age-related mitochondrial abnormalities with skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Free Radic Biol Med, 25, 964-972 (1998)
134. Lopez, M. E., N. L. Van Zeeland, D. B. Dahl, R. Weindruch & J. M. Aiken: Cellular phenotypes of age- associated skeletal muscle mitochondrial abnormalities in rhesus monkeys. Mutat Res, 452, 123-138 (2000)
135. Wanagat, J., Z. Cao, P. Pathare & J. M. Aiken: Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations colocalize with segmental electron transport system abnormalities, muscle fiber atrophy, fiber splitting, and oxidative damage in sarcopenia. FASEB J, 15, 322-332 (2001)
136. Herbst, A., J. W. Pak, D. McKenzie, E. Bua, M. Bassiouni & J. M. Aiken: Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in aged muscle fibers: evidence for a causal role in muscle fiber loss. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 62, 235-245 (2007)
137. Fayet, G., M. Jansson, D. Sternberg, A. R. Moslemi, P. Blondy, A. Lombes, M. Fardeau & A. Oldfors: Ageing muscle: clonal expansions of mitochondrial DNA point mutations and deletions cause focal impairment of mitochondrial function. Neuromuscul Disord, 12, 484-493 (2002)
138. Bodyak, N. D., E. Nekhaeva, J. Y. Wei & K. Khrapko: Quantification and sequencing of somatic deleted mtDNA in single cells: evidence for partially duplicated mtDNA in aged human tissues. Hum Mol Genet, 10, 17-24 (2001)
139. Khrapko, K., N. Bodyak, W. G. Thilly, N. J. van Orsouw, X. Zhang, H. A. Coller, T. T. Perls, M. Upton, J. Vijg & J. Y. Wei: Cell-by-cell scanning of whole mitochondrial genomes in aged human heart reveals a significant fraction of myocytes with clonally expanded deletions. Nucleic Acids Res, 27, 2434-2441 (1999)
140. Alam, Z. I., A. Jenner, S. E. Daniel, A. J. Lees, N. Cairns, C. D. Marsden, P. Jenner & B. Halliwell: Oxidative DNA damage in the parkinsonian brain: an apparent selective increase in 8-hydroxyguanine levels in substantia nigra. J Neurochem, 69, 1196-203 (1997)
141. Greene, J. G., R. Dingledine & J. T. Greenamyre: Gene expression profiling of rat midbrain dopamine neurons: implications for selective vulnerability in parkinsonism. Neurobiol Dis, 18, 19-31 (2005)
142. Bender, A., K. J. Krishnan, C. M. Morris, G. A. Taylor, A. K. Reeve, R. H. Perry, E. Jaros, J. S. Hersheson, J. Betts, T. Klopstock, R. W. Taylor & D. M. Turnbull: High levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions in substantia nigra neurons in aging and Parkinson disease. Nat Genet, 38, 515-517 (2006)
143. Kraytsberg, Y., E. Kudryavtseva, A. C. McKee, C. Geula, N. W. Kowall & K. Khrapko: Mitochondrial DNA deletions are abundant and cause functional impairment in aged human substantia nigra neurons. Nat Genet, 38, 518- 520 (2006)
144. Fasano, M., B. Bergamasco & L. Lopiano: Modifications of the iron-neuromelanin system in Parkinson's disease. J Neurochem, 96, 909-916 (2006)
145. Fahn, S.: Levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm, Suppl, 1-15 (2006)
146. Alam, Z. I., S. E. Daniel, A. J. Lees, D. C. Marsden, P. Jenner & B. Halliwell: A generalised increase in protein carbonyls in the brain in Parkinson's but not incidental Lewy body disease. J Neurochem, 69, 1326-1329 (1997)
147. Spencer, J. P., P. Jenner, S. E. Daniel, A. J. Lees, D. C. Marsden & B. Halliwell: Conjugates of catecholamines with cysteine and GSH in Parkinson's disease: possible mechanisms of formation involving reactive oxygen species. J Neurochem, 71, 2112-2122 (1998)
148. Weiner, W. J.: Levodopa--toxic or neuroprotective? Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 2, 518-519 (2006)
149. Lin, M. T., D. K. Simon, C. H. Ahn, L. M. Kim & M. F. Beal: High aggregate burden of somatic mtDNA point mutations in aging and Alzheimer's disease brain. Hum Mol Genet, 11, 133-145 (2002)
150. Tanaka, M., S. A. Kovalenko, J. S. Gong, H. J. Borgeld, K. Katsumata, M. Hayakawa, M. Yoneda & T. Ozawa: Accumulation of deletions and point mutations in mitochondrial genome in degenerative diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 786, 102-111 (1996)
151. Greaves, L. C., S. L. Preston, P. J. Tadrous, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Barron, D. Oukrif, S. J. Leedham, M. Deheragoda, P. Sasieni, M. R. Novelli, J. A. Jankowski, D. M. Turnbull, N. A. Wright & S. A. McDonald: Mitochondrial DNA mutations are established in human colonic stem cells, and mutated clones expand by crypt fission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 714-719 (2006)
152. Taylor, R. W., M. J. Barron, G. M. Borthwick, A. Gospel, P. F. Chinnery, D. C. Samuels, G. A. Taylor, S. M. Plusa, S. J. Needham, L. C. Greaves, T. B. Kirkwood & D. M. Turnbull: Mitochondrial DNA mutations in human colonic crypt stem cells. J Clin Invest, 112, 1351-1360 (2003)
153. Brunk, U. T. & A. Terman: The mitochondriallysosomal axis theory of aging: accumulation of damaged mitochondria as a result of imperfect autophagocytosis. Eur J Biochem, 269, 1996-2002 (2002)
154. de Grey, A. D.: A proposed refinement of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging. Bioessays, 19, 161-166 (1997)
155. Hayashi, J., S. Ohta, A. Kikuchi, M. Takemitsu, Y. Goto & I. Nonaka: Introduction of disease-related mitochondrial DNA deletions into HeLa cells lacking mitochondrial DNA results in mitochondrial dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 10614- 10618 (1991)
156. Mita, S., B. Schmidt, E. A. Schon, S. DiMauro & E. Bonilla: Detection of "deleted" mitochondrial genomes in cytochrome-c oxidase-deficient muscle fibers of a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 86, 9509-9513 (1989)
157. Yoneda, M., A. Chomyn, A. Martinuzzi, O. Hurko & G. Attardi: Marked replicative advantage of human mtDNA carrying a point mutation that causes the MELAS encephalomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89, 11164-11168 (1992)
158. Seifried, H. E., D. E. Anderson, E. I. Fisher & J. A. Milner: A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species. J Nutr Biochem, 18, 567-579 (2007)
159. Hurd, T. R., T. A. Prime, M. E. Harbour, K. S. Lilley & M. P. Murphy: Detection of reactive oxygen species-sensitive thiol proteins by redox difference gel electrophoresis: implications for mitochondrial redox signaling. J Biol Chem, 282, 22040-22051 (2007)
160. Hughes, G., M. P. Murphy & E. C. Ledgerwood: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the temporal activation of nuclear factor kappaB to modulate tumour necrosis factor-induced apoptosis: evidence from mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. Biochem J, 389, 83-89 (2005)
161. Wright, A. F., S. G. Jacobson, A. V. Cideciyan, A. J. Roman, X. Shu, D. Vlachantoni, R. R. McInnes & R. A. Riemersma: Lifespan and mitochondrial control of neurodegeneration. Nat Genet, 36, 1153-1158 (2004)
162. Kujoth, G. C., P. C. Bradshaw, S. Haroon & T. A. Prolla: The role of mitochondrial DNA mutations in mammalian aging. PLoS Genet, 3, e24 (2007)
163. Danielson, S. R., A. Wong, V. Carelli, A. Martinuzzi, A. H. Schapira & G. A. Cortopassi: Cells bearing mutations causing Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy are sensitized to Fas-Induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem, 277, 5810-5815 (2002)
164. Mott, J. L., D. Zhang & H. P. Zassenhaus: Mitochondrial DNA mutations, apoptosis, and the misfolded protein response. Rejuvenation Res, 8, 216-226 (2005)
165. de Grey, A. D.: The reductive hotspot hypothesis of mammalian aging: membrane metabolism magnifies mutant mitochondrial mischief. Eur J Biochem, 269, 2003- 2009 (2002)
166. Bollmann, F. M.: A model of metabolic changes in respiration-deficient human cells. Rejuvenation Res, 10, 327-333 (2007)
167. de Grey, A. D.: The reductive hotspot hypothesis: an update. Arch Biochem Biophys, 373, 295-301 (2000)
168. Cdc: From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public health and aging: trends in aging-- United States and worldwide. JAMA, 289, 1371-1373 (2003)
169. Miller, R. A.: Biomedicine. The anti-aging sweepstakes: catalase runs for the ROSes. Science, 308, 1875-1876 (2005)
170. Cutler, R. G. & M. P. Mattson: The adversities of aging. Ageing Res Rev, 5, 221-238 (2006)
171. Ishii, N., S. Goto & P. S. Hartman: Protein oxidation during aging of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Free Radic Biol Med, 33, 1021-1025 (2002)
172. Liu, J., E. Head, A. M. Gharib, W. Yuan, R. T. Ingersoll, T. M. Hagen, C. W. Cotman & B. N. Ames: Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha - lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 2356-2361 (2002)
173. Ward, W. F., W. Qi, H. Van Remmen, W. E. Zackert, L. J. Roberts & A. Richardson: Effects of age and caloric restriction on lipid peroxidation: measurement of oxidative stress by F2-isoprostane levels. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 60, 847-851 (2005)
174. Youssef, J. A., L. S. Birnbaum, L. L. Swift, J. D. Morrow & M. Z. Badr: Age-independent, gray matterlocalized, brain-enhanced oxidative stress in male fischer 344 rats: brain levels of F (2)-isoprostanes and F (4)-neuroprostanes. Free Radic Biol Med, 34, 1631-1635 (2003)
175. Zainal, T. A., T. D. Oberley, D. B. Allison, L. I. Szweda & R. Weindruch: Caloric restriction of rhesus monkeys lowers oxidative damage in skeletal muscle. FASEB J, 14, 1825-36 (2000)
176. Hamilton, M. L., H. Van Remmen, J. A. Drake, H. Yang, Z. M. Guo, K. Kewitt, C. A. Walter & A. Richardson: Does oxidative damage to DNA increase with age? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 10469-10474 (2001)
177. Seim, H., K. Eichler, H. P. Kleber: L (-)-Carnitine and its precursor, gamma-butyrobetaine. In: K. Kraemer, P. P. Hoppe & L. Packer (eds.): Nutraceuticals in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2001)
178. Vaz, F. M. & R. J. Wanders: Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals. Biochem J, 361, 417-429 (2002)
179. Rebouche, C. J.: Carnitine function and requirements during the life cycle. FASEB J, 6, 3379-3386 (1992)
180. Maccari, F., A. Arseni, P. Chiodi, M. T. Ramacci & L. Angelucci: Levels of carnitines in brain and other tissues of rats of different ages: effect of acetyl-L-carnitine administration. Exp Gerontol, 25, 127-134 (1990)
181. Haripriya, D., M. A. Devi, V. Kokilavani, P. Sangeetha & C. Panneerselvam: Age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial enzymes in cortex, striatum and hippocampus of rat brain -- potential role of L-Carnitine. Biogerontology, 5, 355-364 (2004)
182. Kumaran, S., M. Subathra, M. Balu & C. Panneerselvam: Supplementation of L-carnitine improves mitochondrial enzymes in heart and skeletal muscle of aged rats. Exp Aging Res, 31, 55-67 (2005)
183. Villa, R. F. & A. Gorini: Action of L-acetylcarnitine on different cerebral mitochondrial populations from hippocampus and striatum during aging. Neurochem Res, 16, 1125-1132 (1991)
184. Gorini, A., A. D'Angelo & R. F. Villa: Action of Lacetylcarnitine on different cerebral mitochondrial populations from cerebral cortex. Neurochem Res, 23, 1485-1491 (1998)
185. Pettegrew, J. W., J. Levine & R. J. McClure: Acetyl- L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Mol Psychiatry, 5, 616- 632 (2000)
186. Ori, C., U. Freo, G. Pizzolato & M. Dam: Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in awake rats. Brain Res, 951, 330-335 (2002)
187. Al Majed, A. A., M. M. Sayed-Ahmed, F. A. Al Omar, A. A. Al Yahya, A. M. Aleisa & O. A. Al Shabanah: Carnitine esters prevent oxidative stress damage and energy depletion following transient forebrain ischaemia in the rat hippocampus. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 33, 725-733 (2006)
188. Mollica, M. P., S. Iossa, S. Soboll & G. Liverini: Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment stimulates oxygen consumption and biosynthetic function in perfused liver of young and old rats. Cell Mol Life Sci, 58, 477-484 (2001)
189. Iossa, S., M. P. Mollica, L. Lionetti, R. Crescenzo, M. Botta, A. Barletta & G. Liverini: Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation differently influences nutrient partitioning, serum leptin concentration and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in young and old rats. J Nutr, 132, 636-642 (2002)
190. Rebouche, C. J.: Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1033, 30-41 (2004)
191. Marzo, A., M. E. Arrigoni, R. Urso, M. Rocchetti, V. Rizza & J. G. Kelly: Metabolism and disposition of intravenously administered acetyl-L-carnitine in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 37, 59-63 (1989)
192. Arockia Rani, P. J. & C. Panneerselvam: Carnitine as a free radical scavenger in aging. Exp Gerontol, 36, 1713- 1726 (2001)
193. Yasui, F., S. Matsugo, M. Ishibashi, T. Kajita, Y. Ezashi, Y. Oomura, S. Kojo & K. Sasaki: Effects of chronic acetyl-L-carnitine treatment on brain lipid hydroperoxide level and passive avoidance learning in senescence-accelerated mice. Neurosci Lett, 334, 177-180 (2002)
194. Butterfield, D. A. & H. F. Poon: The senescenceaccelerated prone mouse (SAMP8): a model of age-related cognitive decline with relevance to alterations of the gene expression and protein abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Exp Gerontol, 40, 774-783 (2005)
195. de Sotomayor, M. A., C. Mingorance, R. Rodriguez- Rodriguez, E. Marhuenda & M. D. Herrera: l-carnitine and its propionate: improvement of endothelial function in SHR through superoxide dismutase-dependent mechanisms. Free Radic Res, 41, 884-891 (2007)
196. Gomez-Amores, L., A. Mate, E. Revilla, C. Santa- Maria & C. M. Vazquez: Antioxidant activity of propionyl- L-carnitine in liver and heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci, 78, 1945-1952 (2006)
197. Clark, R. M., A. Balakrishnan, D. Waters, D. Aggarwal, K. Q. Owen & S. I. Koo: L-carnitine increases liver alpha-tocopherol and lowers liver and plasma triglycerides in aging ovariectomized rats. J Nutr Biochem, 18, 623-628 (2007)
198. Hagen, T. M., J. Liu, J. Lykkesfeldt, C. M. Wehr, R. T. Ingersoll, V. Vinarsky, J. C. Bartholomew & B. N. Ames: Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 1870-1875 (2002)
199. Sachan, D. S., N. Hongu & M. Johnsen: Decreasing oxidative stress with choline and carnitine in women. J Am Coll Nutr, 24, 172-176 (2005)
200. Haripriya, D., P. Sangeetha, A. Kanchana, M. Balu & C. Panneerselvam: Modulation of age-associated oxidative DNA damage in rat brain cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus by L-carnitine. Exp Gerontol, 40, 129-135 (2005)
201. DiMauro, S. & E. A. Schon: Mitochondrial respiratory-chain diseases. N Engl J Med, 348, 2656-2668 (2003)
202. DiMauro, S. & M. Mancuso: Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches. Biosci Rep, 27, 125-137 (2007)
203. Arsenian, M. A.: Carnitine and its derivatives in cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 40, 265-286 (1997)
204. Ferrari, R., E. Merli, G. Cicchitelli, D. Mele, A. Fucili & C. Ceconi: Therapeutic effects of L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine on cardiovascular diseases: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1033, 79-91 (2004)
205. Study Investigators: Study on propionyl-L-carnitine in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J, 20, 70-76 (1999)
206. Malaguarnera, M., L. Cammalleri, M. P. Gargante, M. Vacante, V. Colonna & M. Motta: L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 86, 1738-1744 (2007)
207. Calabrese, V., A. M. Giuffrida Stella, M. Calvani & D. A. Butterfield: Acetylcarnitine and cellular stress response: roles in nutritional redox homeostasis and regulation of longevity genes. J Nutr Biochem, 17, 73-88 (2006)
208. Littarru, G. P. & L. Tiano: Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol, 37, 31-37 (2007)
209. Bhagavan, H. N. & R. K. Chopra: Coenzyme Q10: absorption, tissue uptake, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Free Radic Res, 40, 445-453 (2006)
210. Beal, M. F.: Bioenergetic approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol, 53 Suppl 3, S39-S47 (2003)
211. Lenaz, G., C. Bovina, M. D'Aurelio, R. Fato, G. Formiggini, M. L. Genova, G. Giuliano, M. Merlo Pich, U. Paolucci, G. Parenti Castelli & B. Ventura: Role of mitochondria in oxidative stress and aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 959, 199-213 (2002)
212. Schmelzer, C., I. Lindner, C. Vock, K. Fujii & F. Doring: Functional connections and pathways of coenzyme Q10-inducible genes: an in-silico study. IUBMB Life, 59, 628-633 (2007)
213. Kidd, P. M.: Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev, 10, 268-293 (2005)
214. Stocker, R., V. W. Bowry & B. Frei: Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxidation than does alpha-tocopherol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 88, 1646-1650 (1991)
215. Lagendijk, J., J. B. Ubbink & W. J. Vermaak: Measurement of the ratio between the reduced and oxidized forms of coenzyme Q10 in human plasma as a possible marker of oxidative stress. J Lipid Res, 37, 67-75 (1996)
216. Wada, H., H. Goto, S. Hagiwara & Y. Yamamoto: Redox status of coenzyme Q10 is associated with chronological age. J Am Geriatr Soc, 55, 1141-1142 (2007)
217. Ishii, N., N. Senoo-Matsuda, K. Miyake, K. Yasuda, T. Ishii, P. S. Hartman & S. Furukawa: Coenzyme Q10 can prolong C. elegans lifespan by lowering oxidative stress. Mech Ageing Dev, 125, 41-46 (2004)
218. Rosenfeldt, F. L., S. Pepe, A. Linnane, P. Nagley, M. Rowland, R. Ou, S. Marasco, W. Lyon & D. Esmore: Coenzyme Q10 protects the aging heart against stress: studies in rats, human tissues, and patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 959, 355-9; discussion 463-465 (2002)
219. Kwong, L. K., S. Kamzalov, I. Rebrin, A. C. Bayne, C. K. Jana, P. Morris, M. J. Forster & R. S. Sohal: Effects of coenzyme Q (10) administration on its tissue concentrations, mitochondrial oxidant generation, and oxidative stress in the rat. Free Radic Biol Med, 33, 627-38 (2002)
220. Matthews, R. T., L. Yang, S. Browne, M. Baik & M. F. Beal: Coenzyme Q10 administration increases brain mitochondrial concentrations and exerts neuroprotective effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 8892-8897 (1998)
221. Sohal, R. S., S. Kamzalov, N. Sumien, M. Ferguson, I. Rebrin, K. R. Heinrich & M. J. Forster: Effect of coenzyme Q10 intake on endogenous coenzyme Q content, mitochondrial electron transport chain, antioxidative defenses, and life span of mice. Free Radic Biol Med, 40, 480-487 (2006)
222. Alho, H. & K. Loennert: Coenzyme Q supplementation and longevity. In: V. E. Kagan & P. J. Quinn (eds.): Coenzyme Q: molecular mechanisms in health and disease. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2001)
223. Lee, C. K., T. D. Pugh, R. G. Klopp, J. Edwards, D. B. Allison, R. Weindruch & T. A. Prolla: The impact of alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10 and caloric restriction on life span and gene expression patterns in mice. Free Radic Biol Med, 36, 1043-1057 (2004)
224. Palmer, M. R. & T. B. Sackton: The effects of dietary coenzyme Q on Drosophila life span. Aging Cell, 2, 335-339 (2003)
225. Driver, C. & A. Georgiou: How to re-energise old mitochondria without shooting yourself in the foot. Biogerontology, 3, 103-106 (2002)
226. Linnane, A. W., M. Kios & L. Vitetta: Coenzyme Q (10)--its role as a prooxidant in the formation of superoxide anion/hydrogen peroxide and the regulation of the metabolome. Mitochondrion, 7 Suppl, S51-S61 (2007)
227. Larsen, P. L. & C. F. Clarke: Extension of life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans by a diet lacking coenzyme Q. Science, 295, 120-123 (2002)
228. Poderoso, J. J., M. C. Carreras, F. Schopfer, C. L. Lisdero, N. A. Riobo, C. Giulivi, A. D. Boveris, A. Boveris & E. Cadenas: The reaction of nitric oxide with ubiquinol: kinetic properties and biological significance. Free Radic Biol Med, 26, 925-935 (1999)
229. Somayajulu, M., S. McCarthy, M. Hung, M. Sikorska, H. Borowy-Borowski & S. Pandey: Role of mitochondria in neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress; neuroprotection by Coenzyme Q10. Neurobiol Dis, 18, 618-627 (2005)
230. Papucci, L., N. Schiavone, E. Witort, M. Donnini, A. Lapucci, A. Tempestini, L. Formigli, S. Zecchi- Orlandini, G. Orlandini, G. Carella, R. Brancato & S. Capaccioli: Coenzyme Q10 prevents apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial depolarization independently of its free radical scavenging property. J Biol Chem, 278, 28220-28228 (2003)
231. Echtay, K. S., E. Winkler, K. Frischmuth & M. Klingenberg: Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 are highly active H ( ) transporters and highly nucleotide sensitive when activated by coenzyme Q (ubiquinone). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 1416-1421 (2001)
232. Ochoa, J. J., J. L. Quiles, J. R. Huertas & J. Mataix: Coenzyme Q10 protects from aging-related oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial function in heart of rats fed a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- rich diet. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 60, 970-975 (2005)
233. Mohr, D., V. W. Bowry & R. Stocker: Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human lowdensity lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1126, 247-254 (1992)
234. Sander, S., C. I. Coleman, A. A. Patel, J. Kluger & C. M. White: The impact of coenzyme Q10 on systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure. J Card Fail, 12, 464-472 (2006)
235. Singh, U., S. Devaraj & I. Jialal: Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and heart failure. Nutr Rev, 65, 286-93 (2007)
236. Pepe, S., S. F. Marasco, S. J. Haas, F. L. Sheeran, H. Krum & F. L. Rosenfeldt: Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrion, 7 Suppl, S154-S167 (2007)
237. Piotrowski, P., K. Wierzbicka & M. Smialek: Neuronal death in the rat hippocampus in experimental diabetes and cerebral ischaemia treated with antioxidants. Folia Neuropathol, 39, 147-154 (2001)
238. Ren, Z., W. Ding, Z. Su, X. Gu, H. Huang, J. Liu, Q. Yan, W. Zhang & X. Yu: Mechanisms of brain injury with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and protective effects of coenzyme Q10. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 108, 126- 133 (1994)
239. Lodi, R., P. E. Hart, B. Rajagopalan, D. J. Taylor, J. G. Crilley, J. L. Bradley, A. M. Blamire, D. Manners, P. Styles, A. H. Schapira & J. M. Cooper: Antioxidant treatment improves in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in patients with Friedreich's ataxia. Ann Neurol, 49, 590-596 (2001)
240. Young, A. J., S. Johnson, D. C. Steffens & P. M. Doraiswamy: Coenzyme Q10: a review of its promise as a neuroprotectant. CNS Spectr, 12, 62-68 (2007)
241. Kraemer & K., L. Packer: R-alpha-Lipoic acid. In: K. Kraemer, P. P. Hoppe & L. Packer (eds.): Nutraceuticals in health and disease prevention. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2001)
242. Moini, H., L. Packer & N. E. Saris: Antioxidant and prooxidant activities of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 182, 84-90 (2002)
243. Biewenga, G. P., G. R. Haenen & A. Bast: The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. Gen Pharmacol, 29, 315-331 (1997)
244. Smith, A. R., S. V. Shenvi, M. Widlansky, J. H. Suh & T. M. Hagen: Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem, 11, 1135-1146 (2004)
245. Arivazhagan, P., K. Ramanathan & C. Panneerselvam: Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on mitochondrial enzymes in aged rats. Chem Biol Interact, 138, 189-198 (2001)
246. Palaniappan, A. R. & A. Dai: Mitochondrial ageing and the beneficial role of alpha-lipoic acid. Neurochem Res, 32, 1552-1558 (2007)
247. Ojaimi, J., C. L. Masters, K. Opeskin, P. McKelvie & E. Byrne: Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in the human brain as a function of age. Mech Ageing Dev, 111, 39-47 (1999)
248. Frolich, L., M. E. Gotz, M. Weinmuller, M. B. Youdim, N. Barth, A. Dirr, W. Gsell, K. Jellinger, H. Beckmann & P. Riederer: (r)-, but not (s)-alpha lipoic acid stimulates deficient brain pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in vascular dementia, but not in Alzheimer dementia. J Neural Transm, 111, 295-310 (2004)
249. Liu, J.: The effects and mechanisms of mitochondrial nutrient alpha-lipoic acid on improving age-associated mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction: an overview. Neurochem Res, 33, 194-203 (2008)
250. Scott, B. C., O. I. Aruoma, P. J. Evans, C. O'Neill, A. Van der Vliet, C. E. Cross, H. Tritschler & B. Halliwell: Lipoic and dihydrolipoic acids as antioxidants. A critical evaluation. Free Radic Res, 20, 119-33 (1994)
251. Whiteman, M., H. Kaur & B. Halliwell: Protection against peroxynitrite dependent tyrosine nitration and alpha 1-antiproteinase inactivation by some anti-inflammatory drugs and by the antibiotic tetracycline. Ann Rheum Dis, 55, 383-387 (1996)
252. Bast, A. & G. Haenen: Lipoic acid: a multifunctional nutraceutical. In: K. Kraemer, P. P. Hoppe & L. Packer (eds.): Nutraceuticals in health and disease prevention. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2001)
253. Suh, J. H., H. Wang, R. M. Liu, J. Liu & T. M. Hagen: (R)-alpha-lipoic acid reverses the age-related loss in GSH redox status in post-mitotic tissues: evidence for increased cysteine requirement for GSH synthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys, 423, 126-135 (2004)
254. Suh, J. H., S. V. Shenvi, B. M. Dixon, H. Liu, A. K. Jaiswal, R. M. Liu & T. M. Hagen: Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 3381-3386 (2004)
255. Suh, J. H., E. T. Shigeno, J. D. Morrow, B. Cox, A. E. Rocha, B. Frei & T. M. Hagen: Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)- (alpha)-lipoic acid. FASEB J, 15, 700-706 (2001)
256. Lykkesfeldt, J., T. M. Hagen, V. Vinarsky & B. N. Ames: Age-associated decline in ascorbic acid concentration, recycling, and biosynthesis in rat hepatocytes--reversal with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid supplementation. FASEB J, 12, 1183-1189 (1998)
257. Arivazhagan, P., P. Juliet & C. Panneerselvam: Effect of dl-alpha-lipoic acid on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in aged rats. Pharmacol Res, 41, 299-303 (2000)
258. Hagen, T. M., R. Moreau, J. H. Suh & F. Visioli: Mitochondrial decay in the aging rat heart: evidence for improvement by dietary supplementation with acetyl-Lcarnitine and/or lipoic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 959, 491- 507 (2002)
259. Kayali, R., U. Cakatay, T. Akcay & T. Altug: Effect of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on markers of protein oxidation in post-mitotic tissues of ageing rat. Cell Biochem Funct, 24, 79-85 (2006)
260. Bauer, J. H., S. Goupil, G. B. Garber & S. L. Helfand: An accelerated assay for the identification of lifespanextending interventions in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 12980-12985 (2004)
261. Brown, M. K., J. L. Evans & Y. Luo: Beneficial effects of natural antioxidants EGCG and alpha-lipoic acid on life span and age-dependent behavioral declines in Caenorhabditis elegans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 85, 620-628 (2006)
262. Veresiu, I. A.: Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid is evidence based. Rom J Intern Med, 42, 293-299 (2004)
263. Ziegler, D., A. Ametov, A. Barinov, P. J. Dyck, I. Gurieva, P. A. Low, U. Munzel, N. Yakhno, I. Raz, M. Novosadova, J. Maus & R. Samigullin: Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care, 29, 2365-2370 (2006)
264. Ziegler, D., H. Nowak, P. Kempler, P. Vargha & P. A. Low: Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: a meta-analysis. Diabet Med, 21, 114-121 (2004)
265. Borcea, V., J. Nourooz-Zadeh, S. P. Wolff, M. Klevesath, M. Hofmann, H. Urich, P. Wahl, R. Ziegler, H. Tritschler, B. Halliwell & P. P. Nawroth: alpha-Lipoic acid decreases oxidative stress even in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control and albuminuria. Free Radic Biol Med, 26, 1495-500 (1999)
266. Sauer, J., N. Tabet & R. Howard: Alpha lipoic acid for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD004244 (2004)
267. Wollin, S. D. & P. J. Jones: Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovascular disease. J Nutr, 133, 3327-3330 (2003)
268. Liu, J., H. Atamna, H. Kuratsune & B. N. Ames: Delaying brain mitochondrial decay and aging with mitochondrial antioxidants and metabolites. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 959, 133-166 (2002)
269. Savitha, S., K. Sivarajan, D. Haripriya, V. Kokilavani & C. Panneerselvam: Efficacy of levo carnitine and alpha lipoic acid in ameliorating the decline in mitochondrial enzymes during aging. Clin Nutr, 24, 794-800 (2005)
270. Shea, T. B.: Effects of dietary supplementation with N-acetyl cysteine, acetyl-L-carnitine and S-adenosyl methionine on cognitive performance and aggression in normal mice and mice expressing human ApoE4. Neuromolecular Med, 9, 264-269 (2007)
271. Hruszkewycz, A. M. & D. S. Bergtold: The 8- hydroxyguanine content of isolated mitochondria increases with lipid peroxidation. Mutat Res, 244, 123-128 (1990)
272. Meydani, M., R. D. Lipman, S. N. Han, D. Wu, A. Beharka, K. R. Martin, R. Bronson, G. Cao, D. Smith & S. N. Meydani: The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 854, 352-360 (1998)
273. Lipman, R. D., R. T. Bronson, D. Wu, D. E. Smith, R. Prior, G. Cao, S. N. Han, K. R. Martin, S. N. Meydani & M. Meydani: Disease incidence and longevity are unaltered by dietary antioxidant supplementation initiated during middle age in C57BL/6 mice. Mech Ageing Dev, 103, 269- 284 (1998)
274. Halliwell, B.: Dietary polyphenols: good, bad, or indifferent for your health? Cardiovasc Res, 73, 341-347 (2007)
275. Halliwell, B.: Establishing the significance and optimal intake of dietary antioxidants: the biomarker concept. Nutr Rev, 57, 104-113 (1999)
276. Murphy, M. P. & R. A. Smith: Targeting antioxidants to mitochondria by conjugation to lipophilic cations. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 47, 629-656 (2007)
277. Kelso, G. F., C. M. Porteous, C. V. Coulter, G. Hughes, W. K. Porteous, E. C. Ledgerwood, R. A. Smith & M. P. Murphy: Selective targeting of a redox-active ubiquinone to mitochondria within cells: antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. J Biol Chem, 276, 4588-4596 (2001)
278. Weissig, V., S. V. Boddapati, L. Jabr & G. G. D'Souza: Mitochondria-specific nanotechnology. Nanomed, 2, 275-285 (2007)
279. Doughan, A. K. & S. I. Dikalov: Mitochondrial redox cycling of mitoquinone leads to superoxide production and cellular apoptosis. Antioxid Redox Signal, 9, 1825-1836 (2007)
280. James, A. M., H. M. Cocheme, R. A. Smith & M. P. Murphy: Interactions of mitochondria-targeted and untargeted ubiquinones with the mitochondrial respiratory chain and reactive oxygen species. Implications for the use of exogenous ubiquinones as therapies and experimental tools. J Biol Chem, 280, 21295-21312 (2005)
281. Vierck, J. L. & M. V. Dodson: Interpretation of cell culture phenomena. Methods Cell Sci, 22, 79-81 (2000)
282. Long, L. H., D. Kirkland, J. Whitwell & B. Halliwell: Different cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of epigallocatechin gallate in various cell-culture media due to variable rates of its oxidation in the culture medium. Mutat Res, 634, 177-183 (2007)
283. Kroon, P. A., M. N. Clifford, A. Crozier, A. J. Day, J. L. Donovan, C. Manach & G. Williamson: How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr, 80, 15-21 (2004)
284. Holmquist, L., G. Stuchbury, K. Berbaum, S. Muscat, S. Young, K. Hager, J. Engel & G. Munch: Lipoic acid as a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Pharmacol Ther, 113, 154-164 (2007)
285. Speakman, J. R., D. A. Talbot, C. Selman, S. Snart, J. S. McLaren, P. Redman, E. Krol, D. M. Jackson, M. S. Johnson & M. D. Brand: Uncoupled and surviving: individual mice with high metabolism have greater mitochondrial uncoupling and live longer. Aging Cell, 3, 87-95 (2004)
286. Brand, M. D.: Uncoupling to survive? The role of mitochondrial inefficiency in ageing. Exp Gerontol, 35, 811-820 (2000)
287. de Grey, A. D., B. N. Ames, J. K. Andersen, A. Bartke, J. Campisi, C. B. Heward, R. J. McCarter & G. Stock: Time to talk SENS: critiquing the immutability of human aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 959, 452-62; discussion 463-465 (2002)
288. Rattan, S. I.: Hormesis in aging. Ageing Res Rev, 7, 63-78 (2008)
289. Holzenberger, M., J. Dupont, B. Ducos, P. Leneuve, A. Geloen, P. C. Even, P. Cervera & Y. Le Bouc: IGF-1 receptor regulates lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress in mice. Nature, 421, 182-187 (2003)
290. Yamamoto, M., J. D. Clark, J. V. Pastor, P. Gurnani, A. Nandi, H. Kurosu, M. Miyoshi, Y. Ogawa, D. H. Castrillon, K. P. Rosenblatt & M. Kuro-o: Regulation of oxidative stress by the anti-aging hormone klotho. J Biol Chem, 280, 38029-38034 (2005)

Портал «Вечная молодость» www.vechnayamolodost.ru



Читать также:

Молодость продлилась до самой смерти

SkQ1 не дает бессмертия, но дает «вечную молодость» в пределах обычной или чуть увеличенной продолжительности жизни.


Правильное питание защитит от макулярной дегенерации

Авторы считают, что богатая антиоксидантами диета, включающая артишоки, чернику, орехи пеканы и другие растительные продукты, способна частично снизить встречаемость макулярной дегенерации и, соответственно, ассоциированной с возрастом слепоты, в промышленно развитых странах.


Запивать красное мясо красным вином рекомендуют не только кулинары, но и диетологи

Авторы получили ответ на свой вопрос в экспериментах на крысах, которых кормили котлетками из красного мяса индейки либо такими же котлетками в комбинации с концентратом красного вина.


Диабет 2 типа? Берегите свой мозг – это несложно!

Диабет 2 типа ассоциирован с хроническим окислительным стрессом, играющим важную роль в процессах ухудшения познавательной функции и развитии болезни Альцгеймера. Употребление жирной пищи может приводить к резкому повышению уровня свободных радикалов, запускающих окислительный стресс и повреждающих ткани, в том числе ткань мозга.


Раку мало красного вина

Учёные использовали ресвератрол в достаточно высокой концентрации - около 50 г на литр питательной жидкости, в которой росли раковые клетки поджелудочной железы. В вине, получающемся в результате естественного брожения, концентрация этого вещества доходит до 30 г на литр.